For a discussion of the various difficulties and interpretations of the whole passage, see How and Wells' notes, ad loc. According to a statement quoted from the historian Ephorus, this Carthaginian expedition was part of a concerted plan, whereby the Greek world was to be attacked by the Carthaginians in the west and the Persians in the east simultaneously. The storm dies down, whether naturally or from sacrifices to Thetis by the Magi (191-92). Debate at Athens over whether "wooden wall" means the Acropolis or the ships (142). March of the army from Lydia north to Mt. The family of Cadmus of Zancle, and his personal integrity (164). The voyage to Greece of Xerxes' army and fleet. The case of Pantites, another disgraced Spartan (232). Reckoning 48 choenixes to the medimnus, Herodotus has of course divided 5,283, 220 by 48. 1.7 and Aristot. Structure and Themes in The Histories 5. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. A storm destroys a number of Persian ships off the coast of Magnesia (188). 99 The legend, in its main features, originates in the cult of “Zeus Laphystius,” a tribal god who, like the Jehovah of the O. T. and the Moloch and Melqart of the Phoenicians, has a right to all first-born, especially of the priestly house. The superiority of the Phoenician navy; Hdt. 7.121). 105 West, properly speaking; “southward” below should be “eastward.”. 5,280,000 divided by 48 produces 110,000; 3220 divided by 48 leaves a dividend, after the first stage of division, of 340, and this for some unexplained reason Herodotus has added to the quotient. Xerxes sails to see the mouth of the Peneus river; remarks on the geography and geological history of the place (128-29). But it is strange that Perseus, being commonly held great-grandfather of Heracles, is here made to marry the granddaughter of Belus, who in Hdt. Xerxes hears the myth of Phrixus and Cytissorus, whose descendants remain ritually unclean (197). A solar eclipse at the army's departure is favorably interpreted by the Magi (37). 68 Silver, lead, and perhaps copper mines in Attica, from which the state drew an annual revenue. 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] ... Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: book: book 1 book 2 book 3 book 4 book 5 book 6 book 7 book 8 book 9. chapter: Ephialtes of Malis turns traitor, and shows Xerxes a secret path around Thermopylae. But Herodotus' total of 3000 there is only partly composed of fifty-oared ships. Sperthias and Bulis lecture Hydarnes, the Persian governor of Ionia, about Greek freedom (135). This is the first history book in Western history. The dead on both sides include Leonidas and Persian nobles; Hdt. See How and Wells, ad loc. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. 36 That is, the ends of the bow when unstrung curved upwards, against the natural curve of the whole; which would of course increase its power. But most commentators translate “steep your souls in woe.”. 69 In the battle of Tiryns, 494; cp. Book One. Paris is motivated to abduct Helen because of the rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea. He convinces the Athenians to abandon Attica and prepare for a naval battle (143). The Spartan troops are overwhelmed at last by superior numbers (225). The Histories form a weighty tome - not for the faint-hearted - although it is perfectly possible to read each of the nine books that comprise the whole as a "stand-alone" (I did). 48 The exiled king of Sparta; see Hdt. 3.94. Book 4 Summary. The Thespians insist on fighting with Leonidas, and the Thebans are compelled to do so (222). On the day they are in the market, Mobutu, who has run away and is in hiding, dies. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. 39 From a district bordered by Caria, Phrygia, Pisidia, and Lycia. The anger of Darius (king of Persia, 521-486 B.C.) 52 Hdt. His generosity is rewarded (27-29). Thanks for exploring this SuperSummary Study Guide of “Histories” by Herodotus. Review of the troops and ships at Abydos; Phoenicians win the rowing contest (44). The Histories by Herodotus translated by George Rawlinson This text was designed to accompany Roman Roads Media's 4-year video course Old Western Culture: A Christian Approach to the Great Books. Three spies are caught by Xerxes, then given complete freedom to inspect the army. is that the influence of Xerxes' mother Atossa was critical (3). Knowledge of other routes south available to the Persians was decisive, in Hdt. 7 To an oriental all Greeks alike were “Ionians,” Persian Yauna; cp. line to jump to another position: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001.perseus-eng1:7, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001.perseus-eng1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0016.tlg001.perseus-eng1. One of Western history’s greatest books springs to life in Tom Holland’s vibrant new translation Herodotus of Halicarnassus—who was hailed by Cicero as “the father of history”—wrote his histories around 440 BC. 's opinion (173). 7.20; see the note there. Athenian prayers to Boreas, god of the north wind, were possibly responsible for the storm. 3,000 smaller ships (98). 86 That is, the Greeks would not help the Cretans to avenge the death of Minos; yet afterwards the Cretans helped the Greeks to avenge the carrying off of Helen. Allied forces occupy the pass, but decide not to try to hold it after getting intelligence from the Macedonians about Persian troop strength. 1.181, where the wall of Babylon is called a θώρηξ. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Hdt. The Season: A Social History of the Debutante When Consuelo Vanderbilt of the wealthy American Vanderbilt family married the Duke of Marlborough in 1895, she … 3.10) Pericles used the same simile in a funeral oration, referring to the State's loss of its young men. Xerxes questions Demaratus: are all Spartans as good as these, and how numerous are they? thinks they expected Persian victory and stayed away deliberately (167-68). • The rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea, which motivated Paris to abduct Helen. could recite all 300 Spartans from memory if he wished (224). 95 The figure is wrong. ; 80 Red Sea islanders. 18 The Daric stater was equivalent to about 22s. 32 Herodotus is always prone to base ethnological conclusions on Greek legends and the similarity of names; so in the next chapter Medea supplies the name of the Medes. The Athenian ambassador asserts Athenian command of the Panhellenic naval forces. 6.77. The Greek fleet, encouraged, resumes its station at Artemisium. 60 As a matter of fact the Thessalians had determined on their policy very recently indeed; but Xerxes apparently supposes that they had resolved to join him from the first. Full search 91 διαδέξιον has been otherwise translated, as meaning “of good augury”; Stein derives it rather from διαδέξεσθαι, supposing the meaning to be “a sacrifice where the portions of the victim are handed round among the sacrificers.”. 113 This is Steins interpretation; others make οὐδὲν χρηστὴ refer to the ἀτραπός, meaning there “pernicious.”. 111 The expression suggests Herodotus' intention of continuing his history beyond 479, the year with which Book IX ends; but see How-Wells ad loc. The Egyptian revolt is crushed (7). The roster of the Greek contingents at Thermopylae (201-3). 7.112 Xerxes was marching along the coast; here he is far inland. 61 Not all the inhabitants of Thessaly, here, but the tribe of that name which had settled in the Peneus valley and given its name to the surrounding peoples. Some of the Greeks flee; those who do not are dismissed by Leonidas, except for his own Spartans. A wealthy Lydian, Pythius, offers Xerxes his entire fortune for the war effort. The book has been awarded with, and many others. ; 77 Cabalians and Milians; 78 Moschians, etc. Herodotus, with an English translation by A. D. Godley. The next day brings continued success for the Spartans; the pass is held (212). 13 It seems fairly clear that there was some sort of movement from the one continent to the other; Herodotus makes it from Asia to Europe; but on the evidence it is just as likely to have been the other way. Edessa was the chief town. 46 Herodotus generally uses the name “Pelasgian” for the oldest known population of Greece: cp. Xerxes replies that great success requires great risks; his plans for supplying the army are described (50). He explains who is powerful in Asia Minor, including Candaules, Gyges, Alyattes, and Croesus, among others. Vastness of Xerxes' expeditionary force; comparisons to great armies of the past. His invasion of Egypt leads Hdt. The advance to Acanthus and the recruitment of locals (115-116). The speech of Mardonius in support of invasion cites Greek weaknesses: racial inferiority of Greeks is shown by prior subjugation of Ionians; inability of Greeks to cooperate with each other; lack of strategic skill in choosing battle sites (9). Last Reviewed on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Details of the construction of the bridges (36). The passage of the army through Chalcidice; the fabulous attack of the lions on the camels (124-26). Hdt. 57 Xerxes' army might have entered Thessaly by marching along the coast between Olympus and the sea, and up the Peneus valley (the pass of Tempe) to Gonnus. Click anywhere in the 61 Persians; 62 Medes; 63 Assyrians; 64 Bactrians and Sacae; 65 Indians; 66 Arians and Parthians; 67 Caspians, Sarangae and Pactyes; 68 Utians, etc. The high command is described (82). Herodotus' sources and Metho Histories 4. The Delphic oracle advises prayers to the winds, which are duly made (179). Egypt. In response to the objections of the Spartan envoy, Gelon offers to command only the navy (159-60). 93 200 was the usual complement for a Greek trireme—170 rowers, 30 fighters. Xerxes here turns south to avoid the difficult route through the Hermes valley, probably; cp. 94 In 97. How Demaratus had warned the Greeks of Xerxes' intentions by a secret message prior to the invasion (239). It was the dread of personal humiliation that made Marcellus so earnest, for he feared that, if others were chosen, he should himself appear slighted. Doriscus is described (58-59). with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. 14 In spite of the incredulity of antiquity the canal was no doubt actually made and used. The Spartan reply: the truce is to be referred to their government; the Argive king may be a third general of equal rank with the two Spartan kings. The bridges over the Hellespont are begun, then ruined by a storm (33-34). Apparently when this exceeded the usual amount the general public received a largess. 7.3. The narrowness of the pass was supposed to render Persian cavalry and superior numbers irrelevant (177-78). (155). Hdt. 108 The national festival in honor of Apollo, held in September. 5.97) ten drachmae per head would be only 50 talents; far too small a sum for the building of 200 ships; Herodotus cannot mean more than that the Laurium money was a contribution towards a ship-building fund. What a long strange trip this has been. Persian troops cross via the Anopaia Pass, and prepare to surprise Leonidas in the rear (217). Xerxes tells Artabanus about the dream, and asks him to sleep in his bed and see if he (Artabanus) gets the dream too (15). Od. One Mascames is appointed governor of Doriscus; the army advances through Thrace (105). Hdt. En route from Cappadocia to Sardis, the army stops at Celaenae (26). Xerxes' reasons for so doing. 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